Bedroom Bed Warmer, Hipolit House, Kraków

The bed warmer, or warming pan, is a copper object similar to a pan with a lid and a long wooden handle. I was made in 1690, as shown by the engraved date. The lid of the warming pan is richly decorated with a carved repoussé relief. The central field of the lid depicts flowers, leafy twigs, and fruit. A string ornament runs along the edge of the pan. The warming pan was used for warming beds. After filling it with hot water or embers, it was placed under the duvet. Rubber hot water bottles only appeared when the Croatian engineer Eduard Penkala patented his invention in 1903.

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