Castle Mountain ('Góra Zamkowa'), Museum of the Land of Biecz

Zamek w Bieczu

The first traces of human presence on and around the castle hill come from the Neolithic era (approx. 4,500 years ago). The next settlement phase took place in the Lusatian culture period, as evidenced by fragments of a burned wall and ceramics found in this location during archaeological digs in 1961. Further evidence of settlement date back to the early Middle Ages. Most likely, there was already a Gord on the hill in the 9th/10th centuries, surrounded by the settlement that it served. In the early days of Polish statehood, the fortress had a unified defence system. In the 12th/13th centuries, the Biecz 'castellum' district was formed. The castle was the residence of the castellan and his people. In addition to a defensive function, the castellum served as a centre of economic life for the territory under its control. The names of the first Biecz castellans already appear in 13th-century documents: 'comes' Mikołaj in 1243, Bronisz in 1255–1262, and Mikołaj in 1268–1278. The Castle Mountain area is the source of many interesting historical objects that can be viewed in museum displays: a battle-axe, a lance head, fragments of sword blades, arrowheads from bows and crossbows, an iron spoon, fragments of dishware with potters' marks, spindle whorls, and a stone for grinding grain.         

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